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While many scientists remain optimistic that a breakthrough is near, an operational gamma-ray laser is yet to be realized. Some of the early studies were directed toward short pulses of neutrons exciting the upper isomer state in a solid so the gamma-ray transition could benefit from the line-narrowing of Mössbauer effect.

In September , the BBC News reported that there was speculation about the possibility of using positronium annihilation to drive a very powerful gamma ray laser.

David Cassidy of the University of California, Riverside proposed that a single such laser could be used to ignite a nuclear fusion reaction, replacing the banks of hundreds of lasers currently employed in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

Space-based X-ray lasers pumped by a nuclear explosion have also been proposed as antimissile weapons. Living cells have been used to produce laser light.

The GFP is used as the laser's "gain medium", where light amplification takes place. Upon bathing the cell with blue light, it could be seen to emit directed and intense green laser light.

When lasers were invented in , they were called "a solution looking for a problem". Fiber-optic communication using lasers is a key technology in modern communications, allowing services such as the Internet.

The first widely noticeable use of lasers was the supermarket barcode scanner , introduced in The laserdisc player, introduced in , was the first successful consumer product to include a laser but the compact disc player was the first laser-equipped device to become common, beginning in followed shortly by laser printers.

Lasers have many uses in medicine, including laser surgery particularly eye surgery , laser healing, kidney stone treatment, ophthalmoscopy , and cosmetic skin treatments such as acne treatment, cellulite and striae reduction, and hair removal.

Lasers are used to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. They are most commonly used to treat superficial cancers that are on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs.

They are used to treat basal cell skin cancer and the very early stages of others like cervical , penile , vaginal , vulvar , and non-small cell lung cancer.

Laser therapy is often combined with other treatments, such as surgery , chemotherapy , or radiation therapy. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT , or interstitial laser photocoagulation , uses lasers to treat some cancers using hyperthermia, which uses heat to shrink tumors by damaging or killing cancer cells.

Lasers are more precise than traditional surgery methods and cause less damage, pain, bleeding , swelling, and scarring.

A disadvantage is that surgeons must have specialized training. It may be more expensive than other treatments. A laser weapon is a laser that is used as a directed-energy weapon.

In recent years, some hobbyists have taken interests in lasers. Due to the cost of lasers, some hobbyists use inexpensive means to obtain lasers, such as salvaging laser diodes from broken DVD players red , Blu-ray players violet , or even higher power laser diodes from CD or DVD burners.

Hobbyists also have been taking surplus pulsed lasers from retired military applications and modifying them for pulsed holography. Pulsed Ruby and pulsed YAG lasers have been used.

Different applications need lasers with different output powers. Lasers that produce a continuous beam or a series of short pulses can be compared on the basis of their average power.

Lasers that produce pulses can also be characterized based on the peak power of each pulse. The peak power of a pulsed laser is many orders of magnitude greater than its average power.

The average output power is always less than the power consumed. Even the first laser was recognized as being potentially dangerous. Theodore Maiman characterized the first laser as having a power of one "Gillette" as it could burn through one Gillette razor blade.

Today, it is accepted that even low-power lasers with only a few milliwatts of output power can be hazardous to human eyesight when the beam hits the eye directly or after reflection from a shiny surface.

At wavelengths which the cornea and the lens can focus well, the coherence and low divergence of laser light means that it can be focused by the eye into an extremely small spot on the retina , resulting in localized burning and permanent damage in seconds or even less time.

Lasers are usually labeled with a safety class number, which identifies how dangerous the laser is:. The indicated powers are for visible-light, continuous-wave lasers.

For pulsed lasers and invisible wavelengths, other power limits apply. People working with class 3B and class 4 lasers can protect their eyes with safety goggles which are designed to absorb light of a particular wavelength.

Infrared lasers with wavelengths longer than about 1. The label "eye-safe" can be misleading, however, as it applies only to relatively low power continuous wave beams; a high power or Q-switched laser at these wavelengths can burn the cornea, causing severe eye damage, and even moderate power lasers can injure the eye.

Lasers can be a hazard to both civil and military aviation, due to the potential to temporarily distract or blind pilots. See Lasers and aviation safety for more on this topic.

Cameras based on charge-coupled devices may actually be more sensitive to laser damage than biological eyes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Device which emits light via optical amplification. For other uses, see Laser disambiguation. For uses of "Laze", see Laze. Main article: Laser construction.

Gain medium Laser pumping energy High reflector Output coupler Laser beam. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Laser science. Main article: Stimulated emission. Play media. Main article: Q-switching. Main article: Mode-locking.

Main article: Maser. Further information: List of laser types. Main article: Gas laser. Main article: Fiber laser. Main article: Semiconductor lasers.

Main article: List of applications for lasers. Main articles: Laser medicine and Lasers in cancer treatment. Main article: Laser weapon. This article should include a summary of Laser weapon.

See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text. December Main article: Laser safety.

Left: European laser warning symbol required for Class 2 lasers and higher. Right: US laser warning label, in this case for a Class 3B laser. Gordon In Franken, P.

Retrieved May 15, November 7, European Southern Observatory. Retrieved May 9, Lucent Technologies. Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved October 24, In Edward P.

Lazear ed. Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved December 10, University Science Books. Light and Its Uses.

Scientific American. June Progress in Quantum Electronics. November Bibcode : Natur. May 23, Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Physikalische Zeitschrift.

Bibcode : PhyZ Programma Corso di Formazione Obbligatorio in Italian. University of Milano-Bicocca. Archived from the original Powerpoint on June 14, Retrieved January 1, May 4, Masers and Lasers: An Historical Approach 2nd ed.

CRC Press. Retrieved March 15, Retrieved April 24, University of Chicago. Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. Oxford University Press. Popular Science.

Retrieved March 4, March 2, Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on July 3, June 30, Bibcode : PhRvL. Davidson Physics. Retrieved August 17, Homebuilt Lasers Page.

Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved September 15, Photon Systems, Covina, Calif. Archived from the original PDF on July 1, Retrieved May 27, Handbook of the Eurolaser Academy.

McGraw Hill Professional. Stewen, M. Larionov, and A. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, ed. Optical Society of America, Washington, D.

October 25, Applied Physics Letters. Bibcode : ApPhL.. Hanel Photonics. Retrieved September 26, Retrieved August 11, August 19, Laser Focus World Online.

December 9, Archived from the original on March 13, January 13, Nano Letters. Bibcode : NanoL.. Bibcode : JOptB Ode to a quantum physicist: A festschrift in honor of Marlan O.

Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Laser Physics. Accept and Continue. Login Register. My Zebra Register Logout. Zebra Blog. Barcode Scanners and Data Capture.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Public domain Public domain false false. This work is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship.

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On May 16, , Theodore H. Maiman's functional laser used a flashlamp -pumped synthetic ruby crystal to produce red laser light at nanometers wavelength.

The device was only capable of pulsed operation, due to its three-level pumping design scheme. Bennett , and Donald Herriott , constructed the first gas laser , using helium and neon that was capable of continuous operation in the infrared U.

Patent 3,, ; later, Javan received the Albert Einstein Award in Basov and Javan proposed the semiconductor laser diode concept. In , Robert N.

Later that year, Nick Holonyak , Jr. Since the early period of laser history, laser research has produced a variety of improved and specialized laser types, optimized for different performance goals, including:.

The device has potential for applications in quantum computing. Following the invention of the HeNe gas laser, many other gas discharges have been found to amplify light coherently.

Gas lasers using many different gases have been built and used for many purposes. Commercial carbon dioxide CO 2 lasers can emit many hundreds of watts in a single spatial mode which can be concentrated into a tiny spot.

This emission is in the thermal infrared at A nitrogen transverse electrical discharge in gas at atmospheric pressure TEA laser is an inexpensive gas laser, often home-built by hobbyists, which produces rather incoherent UV light at Like all low-pressure gas lasers, the gain media of these lasers have quite narrow oscillation linewidths , less than 3 GHz 0.

Chemical lasers are powered by a chemical reaction permitting a large amount of energy to be released quickly. Such very high power lasers are especially of interest to the military, however continuous wave chemical lasers at very high power levels, fed by streams of gasses, have been developed and have some industrial applications.

Excimer lasers are a special sort of gas laser powered by an electric discharge in which the lasing medium is an excimer , or more precisely an exciplex in existing designs.

These are molecules which can only exist with one atom in an excited electronic state. Once the molecule transfers its excitation energy to a photon, its atoms are no longer bound to each other and the molecule disintegrates.

This drastically reduces the population of the lower energy state thus greatly facilitating a population inversion.

Excimers currently used are all noble gas compounds ; noble gasses are chemically inert and can only form compounds while in an excited state.

Excimer lasers typically operate at ultraviolet wavelengths with major applications including semiconductor photolithography and LASIK eye surgery.

Solid-state lasers use a crystalline or glass rod which is "doped" with ions that provide the required energy states. For example, the first working laser was a ruby laser , made from ruby chromium -doped corundum.

The population inversion is actually maintained in the dopant. These materials are pumped optically using a shorter wavelength than the lasing wavelength, often from a flashtube or from another laser.

The usage of the term "solid-state" in laser physics is narrower than in typical use. Semiconductor lasers laser diodes are typically not referred to as solid-state lasers.

They are used for cutting, welding and marking of metals and other materials, and also in spectroscopy and for pumping dye lasers. Frequency-doubled diode-pumped solid-state DPSS lasers are used to make bright green laser pointers.

Ytterbium , holmium , thulium , and erbium are other common "dopants" in solid-state lasers. They are potentially very efficient and high powered due to a small quantum defect.

Extremely high powers in ultrashort pulses can be achieved with Yb:YAG. The Ho-YAG is usually operated in a pulsed mode, and passed through optical fiber surgical devices to resurface joints, remove rot from teeth, vaporize cancers, and pulverize kidney and gall stones.

Titanium -doped sapphire Ti:sapphire produces a highly tunable infrared laser, commonly used for spectroscopy. It is also notable for use as a mode-locked laser producing ultrashort pulses of extremely high peak power.

Thermal limitations in solid-state lasers arise from unconverted pump power that heats the medium. Diode-pumped thin disk lasers overcome these issues by having a gain medium that is much thinner than the diameter of the pump beam.

This allows for a more uniform temperature in the material. Thin disk lasers have been shown to produce beams of up to one kilowatt. Solid-state lasers or laser amplifiers where the light is guided due to the total internal reflection in a single mode optical fiber are instead called fiber lasers.

Guiding of light allows extremely long gain regions providing good cooling conditions; fibers have high surface area to volume ratio which allows efficient cooling.

In addition, the fiber's waveguiding properties tend to reduce thermal distortion of the beam. Erbium and ytterbium ions are common active species in such lasers.

Quite often, the fiber laser is designed as a double-clad fiber. This type of fiber consists of a fiber core, an inner cladding and an outer cladding.

The index of the three concentric layers is chosen so that the fiber core acts as a single-mode fiber for the laser emission while the outer cladding acts as a highly multimode core for the pump laser.

This lets the pump propagate a large amount of power into and through the active inner core region, while still having a high numerical aperture NA to have easy launching conditions.

Pump light can be used more efficiently by creating a fiber disk laser , or a stack of such lasers. This effect is called photodarkening.

In bulk laser materials, the cooling is not so efficient, and it is difficult to separate the effects of photodarkening from the thermal effects, but the experiments in fibers show that the photodarkening can be attributed to the formation of long-living color centers.

Photonic crystal lasers are lasers based on nano-structures that provide the mode confinement and the density of optical states DOS structure required for the feedback to take place.

Semiconductor lasers are diodes which are electrically pumped. Recombination of electrons and holes created by the applied current introduces optical gain.

Reflection from the ends of the crystal form an optical resonator, although the resonator can be external to the semiconductor in some designs.

Laser diodes are also frequently used to optically pump other lasers with high efficiency. These devices can generate high power outputs with good beam quality, wavelength-tunable narrow- linewidth radiation, or ultrashort laser pulses.

Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers VCSELs are semiconductor lasers whose emission direction is perpendicular to the surface of the wafer.

VCSEL devices typically have a more circular output beam than conventional laser diodes. Quantum cascade lasers are semiconductor lasers that have an active transition between energy sub-bands of an electron in a structure containing several quantum wells.

The development of a silicon laser is important in the field of optical computing. Silicon is the material of choice for integrated circuits , and so electronic and silicon photonic components such as optical interconnects could be fabricated on the same chip.

Unfortunately, silicon is a difficult lasing material to deal with, since it has certain properties which block lasing. However, recently teams have produced silicon lasers through methods such as fabricating the lasing material from silicon and other semiconductor materials, such as indium III phosphide or gallium III arsenide , materials which allow coherent light to be produced from silicon.

These are called hybrid silicon laser. Recent developments have also shown the use of monolithically integrated nanowire lasers directly on silicon for optical interconnects, paving the way for chip level applications.

Lasing without maintaining the medium excited into a population inversion was demonstrated in in sodium gas and again in in rubidium gas by various international teams.

Dye lasers use an organic dye as the gain medium. The wide gain spectrum of available dyes, or mixtures of dyes, allows these lasers to be highly tunable, or to produce very short-duration pulses on the order of a few femtoseconds.

Although these tunable lasers are mainly known in their liquid form, researchers have also demonstrated narrow-linewidth tunable emission in dispersive oscillator configurations incorporating solid-state dye gain media.

In their most prevalent form these solid state dye lasers use dye-doped polymers as laser media. Free-electron lasers , or FELs, generate coherent, high power radiation that is widely tunable, currently ranging in wavelength from microwaves through terahertz radiation and infrared to the visible spectrum, to soft X-rays.

They have the widest frequency range of any laser type. While FEL beams share the same optical traits as other lasers, such as coherent radiation, FEL operation is quite different.

Unlike gas, liquid, or solid-state lasers, which rely on bound atomic or molecular states, FELs use a relativistic electron beam as the lasing medium, hence the term free-electron.

The pursuit of a high-quantum-energy laser using transitions between isomeric states of an atomic nucleus has been the subject of wide-ranging academic research since the early s.

Much of this is summarized in three review articles. While many scientists remain optimistic that a breakthrough is near, an operational gamma-ray laser is yet to be realized.

Some of the early studies were directed toward short pulses of neutrons exciting the upper isomer state in a solid so the gamma-ray transition could benefit from the line-narrowing of Mössbauer effect.

In September , the BBC News reported that there was speculation about the possibility of using positronium annihilation to drive a very powerful gamma ray laser.

David Cassidy of the University of California, Riverside proposed that a single such laser could be used to ignite a nuclear fusion reaction, replacing the banks of hundreds of lasers currently employed in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

Space-based X-ray lasers pumped by a nuclear explosion have also been proposed as antimissile weapons. Living cells have been used to produce laser light.

The GFP is used as the laser's "gain medium", where light amplification takes place. Upon bathing the cell with blue light, it could be seen to emit directed and intense green laser light.

When lasers were invented in , they were called "a solution looking for a problem". Fiber-optic communication using lasers is a key technology in modern communications, allowing services such as the Internet.

The first widely noticeable use of lasers was the supermarket barcode scanner , introduced in The laserdisc player, introduced in , was the first successful consumer product to include a laser but the compact disc player was the first laser-equipped device to become common, beginning in followed shortly by laser printers.

Lasers have many uses in medicine, including laser surgery particularly eye surgery , laser healing, kidney stone treatment, ophthalmoscopy , and cosmetic skin treatments such as acne treatment, cellulite and striae reduction, and hair removal.

Lasers are used to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. They are most commonly used to treat superficial cancers that are on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs.

They are used to treat basal cell skin cancer and the very early stages of others like cervical , penile , vaginal , vulvar , and non-small cell lung cancer.

Laser therapy is often combined with other treatments, such as surgery , chemotherapy , or radiation therapy. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT , or interstitial laser photocoagulation , uses lasers to treat some cancers using hyperthermia, which uses heat to shrink tumors by damaging or killing cancer cells.

Lasers are more precise than traditional surgery methods and cause less damage, pain, bleeding , swelling, and scarring. A disadvantage is that surgeons must have specialized training.

It may be more expensive than other treatments. A laser weapon is a laser that is used as a directed-energy weapon. In recent years, some hobbyists have taken interests in lasers.

Due to the cost of lasers, some hobbyists use inexpensive means to obtain lasers, such as salvaging laser diodes from broken DVD players red , Blu-ray players violet , or even higher power laser diodes from CD or DVD burners.

Hobbyists also have been taking surplus pulsed lasers from retired military applications and modifying them for pulsed holography.

Pulsed Ruby and pulsed YAG lasers have been used. Different applications need lasers with different output powers.

Lasers that produce a continuous beam or a series of short pulses can be compared on the basis of their average power. Lasers that produce pulses can also be characterized based on the peak power of each pulse.

The peak power of a pulsed laser is many orders of magnitude greater than its average power. The average output power is always less than the power consumed.

Even the first laser was recognized as being potentially dangerous. Theodore Maiman characterized the first laser as having a power of one "Gillette" as it could burn through one Gillette razor blade.

Today, it is accepted that even low-power lasers with only a few milliwatts of output power can be hazardous to human eyesight when the beam hits the eye directly or after reflection from a shiny surface.

At wavelengths which the cornea and the lens can focus well, the coherence and low divergence of laser light means that it can be focused by the eye into an extremely small spot on the retina , resulting in localized burning and permanent damage in seconds or even less time.

Lasers are usually labeled with a safety class number, which identifies how dangerous the laser is:. The indicated powers are for visible-light, continuous-wave lasers.

For pulsed lasers and invisible wavelengths, other power limits apply. People working with class 3B and class 4 lasers can protect their eyes with safety goggles which are designed to absorb light of a particular wavelength.

Infrared lasers with wavelengths longer than about 1. The label "eye-safe" can be misleading, however, as it applies only to relatively low power continuous wave beams; a high power or Q-switched laser at these wavelengths can burn the cornea, causing severe eye damage, and even moderate power lasers can injure the eye.

Lasers can be a hazard to both civil and military aviation, due to the potential to temporarily distract or blind pilots. See Lasers and aviation safety for more on this topic.

Cameras based on charge-coupled devices may actually be more sensitive to laser damage than biological eyes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Device which emits light via optical amplification. For other uses, see Laser disambiguation. For uses of "Laze", see Laze. Main article: Laser construction.

Gain medium Laser pumping energy High reflector Output coupler Laser beam. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Laser science. Main article: Stimulated emission. Play media. Main article: Q-switching. Main article: Mode-locking.

Main article: Maser. Further information: List of laser types. Main article: Gas laser. Main article: Fiber laser.

Main article: Semiconductor lasers. Main article: List of applications for lasers. Main articles: Laser medicine and Lasers in cancer treatment.

Main article: Laser weapon. This article should include a summary of Laser weapon. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text.

December Main article: Laser safety. Left: European laser warning symbol required for Class 2 lasers and higher. Right: US laser warning label, in this case for a Class 3B laser.

With regard to green laser pointers the safe exposure time may be less, and with even higher powered lasers instant permanent damage should be expected.

These conclusions must be qualified with recent theoretical observations that certain prescription medications may interact with some wavelengths of laser light, causing increased sensitivity phototoxicity.

Beyond the question of physical injury to the eye from a laser pointer, several other undesirable effects are possible. These include short-lived flash blindness if the beam is encountered in darkened surroundings, as when driving at night.

This may result in momentary loss of vehicular control. Lasers pointed at aircraft are a hazard to aviation.

A police officer seeing a red dot on his chest may conclude that a sniper is targeting him and take aggressive action. For these and similar reasons, the US Food and Drug Administration has advised that laser pointers are not toys and should not be used by minors except under the direct supervision of an adult.

Fibre optic laser safety is characterised by the fact that in normal operation the light beam is inaccessible, so something has to be unplugged or broken for it to become accessible.

The resultant exit beam is quite divergent, so eye safety is highly dependent on distance, and if a magnifying device is used. However, there are a few significant exceptions.

In this case, there is no eye aversion response. These can create a significant hazard if viewed incorrectly, particularly if they are abnormally high power.

High power optical amplifiers are used in long distance systems. They use internal pump lasers with power levels up to a few watts, which is a major hazard.

However these power levels are contained within the amplifier module. Any system employing typical optical connectors i. This tends to reduce the overall risk factor of such systems.

Optical microscopes and magnifying devices also present unique safety challenges. If any optical power is present, and a simple magnifying device is used to examine the fiber end, then the user is no longer protected by beam divergence, since the entire beam may be imaged onto the eye.

Therefore, simple magnifying devices should never be used in such situations. Optical connector inspection microscopes are available which incorporate blocking filters, thus greatly improving eye safety.

The most recent such design [35] also incorporates protection against red fault locating lasers. While most of the danger of lasers comes from the beam itself, there are certain non-beam hazards that are often associated with use of laser systems.

This, coupled with high pressure water for cooling the laser and other associated electrical equipment, can create a greater hazard than the laser beam itself.

Optical tables, lasers, and other equipment should be well grounded. Enclosure interlocks should be respected and special precautions taken during troubleshooting.

In addition to the electrical hazards, lasers may create chemical, mechanical, and other hazards specific to particular installations.

Chemical hazards may include materials intrinsic to the laser, such as beryllium oxide in argon ion laser tubes, halogens in excimer lasers, organic dyes dissolved in toxic or flammable solvents in dye lasers, and heavy metal vapors and asbestos insulation in helium cadmium lasers.

They may also include materials released during laser processing, such as metal fumes from cutting or surface treatments of metals or the complex mix of decomposition products produced in the high energy plasma of a laser cutting plastics.

Mechanical hazards may include moving parts in vacuum and pressure pumps; implosion or explosion of flashlamps, plasma tubes, water jackets, and gas handling equipment.

In commercial laser systems, hazard mitigations such as the presence of fusible plugs , thermal interrupters , and pressure relief valves reduce the hazard of, for example, a steam explosion arising from an obstructed water cooling jacket.

Interlocks, shutters, and warning lights are often critical elements of modern commercial installations. In older lasers, experimental and hobby systems, and those removed from other equipment OEM units special care must be taken to anticipate and reduce the consequences of misuse as well as various failure modes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Lasers and aviation safety. Main article: Laser pointer. For general electrical safety, see High voltage.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. International Electrotechnical Commission. CRS Report for Congress. Schröder, Ed. Technical University of Vienna.

Archived from the original on Food and Drug Administration. Henderson Guide to Laser Safety p "Many medical laser systems produce divergent emission, and so a knowledge of the NOHD nominal ocular hazard distance and NOHA nominal ocular hazard area can be useful.

Used by e. Central Laser Facility, UK. University of Virginia June 15, Archived from the original on January 29, Retrieved September 10, Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 19 May The laser pointer: no demonstrated danger to the eyes.

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. Assessment of alleged retinal laser injuries. Categories : Laser safety and standards. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from October Namespaces Article Talk.

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