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He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France , resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.
The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta , a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
He was nicknamed John Lackland because he was not expected to inherit significant lands. John was appointed the Lord of Ireland in and given lands in England and on the continent.
John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against the royal administrators of his brother, King Richard, whilst Richard was participating in the Third Crusade , but he was proclaimed king after Richard died in He came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in When war with France broke out again in , John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman , Breton , and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in He spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances.
His judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. John's attempt to defeat Philip in failed because of the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines.
When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles.
Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in , neither side complied with its conditions.
It soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late ; supporters of his son Henry III went on to achieve victory over Louis and the rebel barons the following year.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards.
Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today usually considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general".
John was born on 24 December Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time.
Although the custom of primogeniture , under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was slowly becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England.
Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship even more challenging. Shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse , a traditional practice for medieval noble families.
During John's early years, Henry attempted to resolve the question of his succession. Henry the Young King had been crowned King of England in , but was not given any formal powers by his father; he was also promised Normandy and Anjou as part of his future inheritance.
His brother Richard was to be appointed the Count of Poitou with control of Aquitaine, whilst his brother Geoffrey was to become the Duke of Brittany.
In John's elder brothers, backed by Eleanor, rose in revolt against Henry in the short-lived rebellion of to Growing irritated with his subordinate position to Henry II and increasingly worried that John might be given additional lands and castles at his expense,  Henry the Young King travelled to Paris and allied himself with Louis VII.
John had spent the conflict travelling alongside his father, and was given widespread possessions across the Angevin empire as part of the Montlouis settlement; from then onwards, most observers regarded John as Henry II's favourite child, although he was the furthest removed in terms of the royal succession.
In he appropriated the estates of the late Earl of Cornwall and gave them to John. Henry the Young King fought a short war with his brother Richard in over the status of England, Normandy and Aquitaine.
In John made his first visit to Ireland , accompanied by knights and a team of administrators. Ireland had only recently been conquered by Anglo-Norman forces, and tensions were still rife between Henry II, the new settlers and the existing inhabitants.
The problems amongst John's wider family continued to grow. His elder brother Geoffrey died during a tournament in , leaving a posthumous son, Arthur , and an elder daughter, Eleanor.
Richard began discussions about a potential alliance with Philip II in Paris during , and the next year Richard gave homage to Philip in exchange for support for a war against Henry.
When Richard became king in September , he had already declared his intention of joining the Third Crusade. The King named his four-year-old nephew Arthur as his heir.
The political situation in England rapidly began to deteriorate. Longchamp refused to work with Puiset and became unpopular with the English nobility and clergy.
The political turmoil continued. John hoped to acquire Normandy, Anjou and the other lands in France held by Richard in exchange for allying himself with Philip.
He agreed to set aside his wife, Isabella of Gloucester, and marry Philip's sister, Alys , in exchange for Philip's support. For the remaining years of Richard's reign, John supported his brother on the continent, apparently loyally.
After Richard's death on 6 April there were two potential claimants to the Angevin throne: John, whose claim rested on being the sole surviving son of Henry II, and young Arthur I of Brittany, who held a claim as the son of John's elder brother Geoffrey.
Arthur was supported by the majority of the Breton, Maine and Anjou nobles and received the support of Philip II, who remained committed to breaking up the Angevin territories on the continent.
Warfare in Normandy at the time was shaped by the defensive potential of castles and the increasing costs of conducting campaigns.
After his coronation, John moved south into France with military forces and adopted a defensive posture along the eastern and southern Normandy borders.
John and Philip negotiated the May Treaty of Le Goulet ; by this treaty, Philip recognised John as the rightful heir to Richard in respect to his French possessions, temporarily abandoning the wider claims of his client, Arthur.
In order to remarry, John first needed to abandon his wife Isabella, Countess of Gloucester; the King accomplished this by arguing that he had failed to get the necessary papal dispensation to marry the Countess in the first place — as a cousin, John could not have legally wed her without this.
Contemporary chroniclers argued that John had fallen deeply in love with her, and John may have been motivated by desire for an apparently beautiful, if rather young, girl.
Isabella, however, was already engaged to Hugh IX of Lusignan , an important member of a key Poitou noble family and brother of Raoul I, Count of Eu , who possessed lands along the sensitive eastern Normandy border.
Although John was the Count of Poitou and therefore the rightful feudal lord over the Lusignans, they could legitimately appeal John's actions in France to his own feudal lord, Philip.
He argued that he need not attend Philip's court because of his special status as the Duke of Normandy, who was exempt by feudal tradition from being called to the French court.
John initially adopted a defensive posture similar to that of avoiding open battle and carefully defending his key castles. Accompanied by William de Roches, his seneschal in Anjou, he swung his mercenary army rapidly south to protect her.
John's position in France was considerably strengthened by the victory at Mirebeau, but John's treatment of his new prisoners and of his ally, William de Roches, quickly undermined these gains.
De Roches was a powerful Anjou noble, but John largely ignored him, causing considerable offence, whilst the King kept the rebel leaders in such bad conditions that twenty-two of them died.
Further desertions of John's local allies at the beginning of steadily reduced his freedom to manoeuvre in the region. After this, Arthur's fate remains uncertain, but modern historians believe he was murdered by John.
The eastern border region of Normandy had been extensively cultivated by Philip and his predecessors for several years, whilst Angevin authority in the south had been undermined by Richard's giving away of various key castles some years before.
John's mother Eleanor died the following month. The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain.
John's predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas "force and will" , taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.
John inherited a sophisticated system of administration in England, with a range of royal agents answering to the Royal Household: the Chancery kept written records and communications; the Treasury and the Exchequer dealt with income and expenditure respectively; and various judges were deployed to deliver justice around the kingdom.
The administration of justice was of particular importance to John. Several new processes had been introduced to English law under Henry II, including novel disseisin and mort d'ancestor.
One of John's principal challenges was acquiring the large sums of money needed for his proposed campaigns to reclaim Normandy. Revenue from the royal demesne was inflexible and had been diminishing slowly since the Norman conquest.
Matters were not helped by Richard's sale of many royal properties in , and taxation played a much smaller role in royal income than in later centuries.
English kings had widespread feudal rights which could be used to generate income, including the scutage system, in which feudal military service was avoided by a cash payment to the King.
He derived income from fines, court fees and the sale of charters and other privileges. The result was a sequence of innovative but unpopular financial measures.
At the start of John's reign there was a sudden change in prices , as bad harvests and high demand for food resulted in much higher prices for grain and animals.
This inflationary pressure was to continue for the rest of the 13th century and had long-term economic consequences for England.
The result was political unrest across the country. John's royal household was based around several groups of followers.
One group was the familiares regis , his immediate friends and knights who travelled around the country with him. They also played an important role in organising and leading military campaigns.
This intensified under John's rule, with many lesser nobles arriving from the continent to take up positions at court; many were mercenary leaders from Poitou.
This trend for the King to rely on his own men at the expense of the barons was exacerbated by the tradition of Angevin royal ira et malevolentia "anger and ill-will" and John's own personality.
John was deeply suspicious of the barons, particularly those with sufficient power and wealth to potentially challenge the King.
John's personal life greatly affected his reign. Contemporary chroniclers state that John was sinfully lustful and lacking in piety.
None of his known illegitimate children were born after he remarried, and there is no actual documentary proof of adultery after that point, although John certainly had female friends amongst the court throughout the period.
John married Isabella whilst she was relatively young — her exact date of birth is uncertain, and estimates place her between at most 15 and more probably towards nine years old at the time of her marriage.
Chroniclers recorded that John had a "mad infatuation" with Isabella, and certainly the King and Queen had conjugal relationships between at least and ; they had five children.
John's lack of religious conviction has been noted by contemporary chroniclers and later historians, with some suspecting that he was at best impious, or even atheistic , a very serious issue at the time.
They commented on the paucity of John's charitable donations to the Church. During the remainder of his reign, John focused on trying to retake Normandy.
John spent much of securing England against a potential French invasion. John had already begun to improve his Channel forces before the loss of Normandy and he rapidly built up further maritime capabilities after its collapse.
Most of these ships were placed along the Cinque Ports , but Portsmouth was also enlarged. During the truce of —, John focused on building up his financial and military resources in preparation for another attempt to recapture Normandy.
He launched his new fleet to attack the French at the harbour of Damme. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries the border and political relationship between England and Scotland was disputed, with the kings of Scotland claiming parts of what is now northern England.
He refused William's request for the earldom of Northumbria , but did not intervene in Scotland itself and focused on his continental problems.
John remained Lord of Ireland throughout his reign. He drew on the country for resources to fight his war with Philip on the continent. Simmering tensions remained with the native Irish leaders even after John left for England.
Royal power in Wales was unevenly applied, with the country divided between the marcher lords along the borders, royal territories in Pembrokeshire and the more independent native Welsh lords of North Wales.
John took a close interest in Wales and knew the country well, visiting every year between and and marrying his illegitimate daughter, Joan , to the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great.
Llywelyn came to terms that included an expansion of John's power across much of Wales, albeit only temporarily. The Norman and Angevin kings had traditionally exercised a great deal of power over the church within their territories.
From the s onwards, however, successive popes had put forward a reforming message that emphasised the importance of the Church being "governed more coherently and more hierarchically from the centre" and established "its own sphere of authority and jurisdiction, separate from and independent of that of the lay ruler", in the words of historian Richard Huscroft.
John wanted John de Gray , the Bishop of Norwich and one of his own supporters, to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, but the cathedral chapter for Canterbury Cathedral claimed the exclusive right to elect the Archbishop.
They favoured Reginald , the chapter's sub-prior. John refused Innocent's request that he consent to Langton's appointment, but the Pope consecrated Langton anyway in June John was incensed about what he perceived as an abrogation of his customary right as monarch to influence the election.
Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March , prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying.
John treated the interdict as "the equivalent of a papal declaration of war". Innocent gave some dispensations as the crisis progressed. By , though, John was increasingly worried about the threat of French invasion.
Under mounting political pressure, John finally negotiated terms for a reconciliation, and the papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulf Verraccio in May at the Templar Church at Dover.
This resolution produced mixed responses. Although some chroniclers felt that John had been humiliated by the sequence of events, there was little public reaction.
Tensions between John and the barons had been growing for several years, as demonstrated by the plot against the King.
The northern barons rarely had any personal stake in the conflict in France, and many of them owed large sums of money to John; the revolt has been characterised as "a rebellion of the king's debtors".
In John began his final campaign to reclaim Normandy from Philip. He was optimistic, as he had successfully built up alliances with the Emperor Otto, Renaud of Boulogne and Ferdinand of Flanders; he was enjoying papal favour; and he had successfully built up substantial funds to pay for the deployment of his experienced army.
The first part of the campaign went well, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis and retaking the county of Anjou by the end of June.
Within a few months of John's return, rebel barons in the north and east of England were organising resistance to his rule. This was particularly important for John, as a way of pressuring the barons but also as a way of controlling Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Letters of support from the Pope arrived in April but by then the rebel barons had organised. They congregated at Northampton in May and renounced their feudal ties to John, appointing Robert fitz Walter as their military leader.
John met the rebel leaders at Runnymede , near Windsor Castle , on 15 June Neither John nor the rebel barons seriously attempted to implement the peace accord.
The rebels made the first move in the war, seizing the strategic Rochester Castle , owned by Langton but left almost unguarded by the archbishop.
He had stockpiled money to pay for mercenaries and ensured the support of the powerful marcher lords with their own feudal forces, such as William Marshal and Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester.
John's campaign started well. One chronicler had not seen "a siege so hard pressed or so strongly resisted", whilst historian Reginald Brown describes it as "one of the greatest [siege] operations in England up to that time".
The rebel barons responded by inviting the French prince Louis to lead them: Louis had a claim to the English throne by virtue of his marriage to Blanche of Castile , a granddaughter of Henry II.
Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May , and John assembled a naval force to intercept him. By the end of the summer the rebels had regained the south-east of England and parts of the north.
In September , John began a fresh, vigorous attack. He marched from the Cotswolds , feigned an offensive to relieve the besieged Windsor Castle , and attacked eastwards around London to Cambridge to separate the rebel-held areas of Lincolnshire and East Anglia.
John returned west but is said to have lost a significant part of his baggage train along the way. Louis gave up his claim to the English throne and signed the Treaty of Lambeth.
John's first wife, Isabella, Countess of Gloucester, was released from imprisonment in ; she remarried twice, and died in Historical interpretations of John have been subject to considerable change over the centuries.
Medieval chroniclers provided the first contemporary, or near contemporary, histories of John's reign. One group of chroniclers wrote early in John's life, or around the time of his accession, including Richard of Devizes , William of Newburgh , Roger of Hoveden and Ralph de Diceto.
In the 16th century political and religious changes altered the attitude of historians towards John. Tudor historians were generally favourably inclined towards the King, focusing on his opposition to the Papacy and his promotion of the special rights and prerogatives of a king.
By the Victorian period in the 19th century, historians were more inclined to draw on the judgements of the chroniclers and to focus on John's moral personality.
Kate Norgate , for example, argued that John's downfall had been due not to his failure in war or strategy, but due to his "almost superhuman wickedness", whilst James Ramsay blamed John's family background and his cruel personality for his downfall.
In the s, new interpretations of John's reign began to emerge, based on research into the record evidence of his reign, such as pipe rolls , charters, court documents and similar primary records.
Notably, an essay by Vivian Galbraith in proposed a "new approach" to understanding the ruler. Specialists in Irish medieval history, such as Sean Duffy, have challenged the conventional narrative established by Lewis Warren , suggesting that Ireland was less stable by than was previously supposed.
Most historians today, including John's recent biographers Ralph Turner and Lewis Warren, argue that John was an unsuccessful monarch, but note that his failings were exaggerated by 12th- and 13th-century chroniclers.
Warren Hollister , "The dramatic ambivalence of his personality, the passions that he stirred among his own contemporaries, the very magnitude of his failures, have made him an object of endless fascination to historians and biographers.
Popular representations of John first began to emerge during the Tudor period, mirroring the revisionist histories of the time.
Nineteenth-century fictional depictions of John were heavily influenced by Sir Walter Scott 's historical romance, Ivanhoe , which presented "an almost totally unfavourable picture" of the King; the work drew on 19th century histories of the period and on Shakespeare's play.
Sam De Grasse 's role as John in the black-and-white film version shows John committing numerous atrocities and acts of torture. Milne 's poem for children, "King John's Christmas".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the King of England. For the play by William Shakespeare, see King John play. King of England.
Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral. Worcester Cathedral. Isabella, Countess of Gloucester. Main article: Angevin Empire. Main article: Normandy campaigns of — Main article: Economy of England in the Middle Ages.
Main article: List of nobles and magnates of England in the 13th century. Main article: Anglo-French War — Main article: Magna Carta.
Main article: First Barons' War. See also: Cultural depictions of John of England. How does Amazon calculate star ratings? The model takes into account factors including the age of a rating, whether the ratings are from verified purchasers, and factors that establish reviewer trustworthiness.
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